The primary goal of our courses is to maximize the clinical effectiveness of attendee Physical Therapists. Therefore, our courses are based upon literature related to manual technique performance, pathology, patterns of clinical presentation, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics and the efficacy and safety of manual therapy.

Partial reference list

Our entire bibliography totals over 800 scientific papers and texts, which is too many to list here, but so far in this year's course we have placed special attention to the following papers:

PS: Students are not required to read all of them.

PPS: Click here for more about the science we integrate into the course.

  1. Abbott, J. H., Robertson, M. C., Chapple, C., Pinto, D., Wright, A. A., Leon de la Barra, S., … Campbell, A. J. (2013). Manual therapy, exercise therapy, or both, in addition to usual care, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a randomized controlled trial. 1: clinical effectiveness. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 21(4), 525–534.

  2. Altchek, D., Warren, R., Skyhar, M., & Ortiz, G. (1991). T-Plasty Multidirectional Modification Instability of the Bankart of the Anterior Procedure for and Inferior Types. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 73A(1), 106–112.

  3. Aspinall, W. (1990). Clinical testing for the craniovertebral hypermobility syndrome. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 12(2), 47–54. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18787255

  4. Bahk, M., Keyurapan, E., Tasaki, A., Sauers, E., & McFarland, E. (2007). Laxity Testing of the Shoulder. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35, 131–144.

  5. Bahu, M., Christianvorys, G., Covey, A. S., & Ahmad, C. S. (2008). Multidirectional Instability : Evaluation and Treatment Options. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 27, 671–689.

  6. Barakatt, E., Romano, P., Riddle, D., & Beckett, L. (2009). The reliability of Maitland’s Irritability Judgements in Patients with Low Back Pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 17(3), 135–140.

  7. Barakatt, E., Romano, P., Riddle, D., Beckett, L., & Kravitz, R. (2009). An exploration of Maitland’s Concept of Pain Irritability in Patients with Low Back Pain. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 17(4), 196–205.

  8. Bialosky, J. E., Simon, C. B., Bishop, M. D., & George, S. Z. (2012). Basis for spinal manipulative therapy: a physical therapist perspective. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology : Official Journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology, 22(5), 643–7.

  9. Brookham, R. L., McLean, L., & Dickerson, C. R. (2010). Construct validity of muscle force tests of the rotator cuff muscles: an electromyographic investigation. Physical Therapy, 90(4), 572–580.

  10. Brown, K., Luszeck, T., Nerdin, S., Yaden, J., & Young, J. L. (2014). The effectiveness of cervical versus thoracic thrust manipulation for the improvement of pain , disability , and range of motion in patients with mechanical neck pain. Physical Therapy Reviews, 19, 381–392.

  11. Bushnell, B. D., Creighton, R. A., & Herring, M. M. (2008). Bony Instability of the Shoulder. Arthroscopy : The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, 24(9), 1061–1073.

  12. Butler, D., & Coppieters, M. (2007). Letter to the Editor: Neurodynamics in a broader perspective. Manual Therap, 12, e7.

  13. Butler, D., & Gifford, L. (1989). The Concept of Adverse Mechanical Tension in the Nervous System. Part 1: Testing for “Dural tension”. Part 2: Examination and Treatment. Physiotherapy, 75(11), 622.

  14. Cai, X., Razmara, A., Paulus, J. K., Switkowski, K., Fariborz, P. J., Goryachev, S. D., … Thaler, D. E. (2014). Case Misclassification in Studies of Spinal Manipulation and Arterial Dissection. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(8), 1–5.

  15. Cassidy, J. D., Boyle, E., Côté, P., He, Y., Hogg-Johnson, S., Silver, F. L., & Bondy, S. J. (2008). Risk of Vertebrobasilar Stroke and Chiropractic Care. Results of a Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 32(2 SUPPL.), 176–183.

  16. Cassidy, J. D., Bronfort, G., & Havtvigsen, J. (2012). Should we abandon cervical spine manipulation for mechanical neck pain? : no. Bmj, 344(June). http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e3679

  17. Castagna, A., Garofalo, R., Cesari, E., Markopoulos, N., & Conti, M. (2010). Posterior superior internal impingement : an evidence-based review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 382–388.

  18. Cattrysse, E., Swinkels, R. A. H. M., Oostendorp, R. A. B., & Duquet, W. (1997). Upper cervical instability: are clinical tests reliable? Manual Therapy, 2(2), 91–97.

  19. Chambers, L., & Altchek, D. (2013). Microinstability and Internal Impingement in Overhead Athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 32(4), 697–707.

  20. Chiradejnant, A., Latimer, J., Maher, C. G., & Stepkovitch, N. (2002). Does the choice of spinal level treated during posteroanterior (PA) mobilisation affect treatment outcome? Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 18(4), 165–174.

  21. Chiradejnant, A., Maher, C. G., Latimer, J., & Stepkovitch, N. (2003). Efficacy of “therapist-selected” versus “randomly selected” mobilisation techniques for the treatment of low back pain: A randomised controlled trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 49(4), 233–241.

  22. Cook, C. (2012). How about a little love for non-thrust manipulation? Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 20(1), 1–2.

  23. Cook, C., Brismée, J.-M., Fleming, R., & Sizer, P. S. (2005). Identifiers suggestive of clinical cervical spine instability: a Delphi study of physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 85(9), 895–906.

  24. Cook, C. E., Learman, K. E., O’Halloran, B. J., Showalter, C. R., Kabbaz, V. J., Goode, a. P., & Wright, a. a. (2012). Which Prognostic Factors for Low Back Pain Are Generic Predictors of Outcome Across a Range of Recovery Domains? Physical Therapy, 93(1).

  25. Cook, C., Learman, K., Showalter, C., & O’Halloran, B. (2015). The relationship between chief complaint and comparable sign in patients with spinal pain: An exploratory study. Manual Therapy, 20(3), 451–455.

  26. Corner, T., & Emery, R. (2010). Multidirectional instability of the shoulder : does it exist ? Shoulder, 2(2), 71–76.

  27. Cuéllar, R., González, J., Herrán, G. De, & Usabiaga, J. (2005). Shoulder Jerk Test. Arthroscopy : The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, 21(6), 672–679.

  28. Debette, S. (2014). Pathophysiology and risk factors of cervical artery dissection. Current Opinion in Neurology, 27(1), 20–28.

  29. Deyle, G. D., Henderson, N. E., Matekel, R. L., Ryder, M. G., Garber, M. B., & Allison, S. C. (2000). Effectiveness of Manual Physical Therapy and Exercise in Osteoarthritis of the Knee A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132(3), 173–181.

  30. Diercks, R., & Dorrestijin, O. (2012). Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. In Evidence-Based Orthopedics (pp. 763–771). Oxford: BMJ Books.

  31. Dunning, J. (2012). How about an honorable mention for cervical and thoracic thrust manipulation? Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 20(1), 102.

  32. Dunning, J. R., Cleland, J., Waldrup, M., Arnot, C., Young, I., Turner, M., & Sigurdsson, G. (2011). Upper Cervical and Upper Thoracic Thrust Manipulation Versus Non-Thrust Mobilization in Patients With Mechanical Neck Pain: A Multi-Center Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 42(1), 5–18.

  33. Ellis, R., & Hing, W. (2008). Neural Mobilization: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials with an Analysis of Therapeutic Effi cacy. Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(1), 8–22.

  34. Farber, A., Castillo, R., Clough, M., Bahk, M., & McFarland, E. (2006). Clinical Assessment of Three Common Tests for Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Instability. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: American Edition, 88A, 1467–1474.

  35. French, H. P., Brennan, A., White, B., & Cusack, T. (2011). Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee – A systematic review. Manual Therapy, 16(2), 109–117.

  36. Gerber, C., & Ganz, R. (1984). Clinical Assessment of Instability of the Shoulder. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, British Edition, 66B(4), 551–556.

  37. Gerber, C., & Nyffeler, R. W. (2002). Classification of Glenohumeral Joint Instability. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, (400), 65–76.

  38. Goossens, P., Keijsers, E., van Geenen, R. J. C., Zijta, A., van den Broek, M., Verhagen, A. P., & Scholten-Peeters, G. G. M. (2015). Validity of the Thessaly Test in Evaluating Meniscal Tears Compared With Arthroscopy: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 45(1), 18–24.

  39. Gross, A., Langevin, P., Burnie, S. J., Bédard-Brochu, M.-S., Empey, B., Dugas, E., … LeBlanc, F. (2015). Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (SEPTEMBER).

  40. Haldeman, S., Carey, P., Townsend, M., & Papadopoulos, C. (2002). Clinical perceptions of the risk of vertebral artery dissection after cervical manipulation: The effect of referral bias. Spine Journal, 2(5), 334–342.

  41. Hancock, M. J., Maher, Christopher, G., & Latimer, J. (2008). Spinal Manipulative Therapy for Acute Low Back Pain : A Clinical Perspective. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, 16(4), 198–204.

  42. Hansson, P. (2014). Translational aspects of central sensitization induced by primary afferent activity : What it is and what it is not. Pain, 155(10), 1932–1934.

  43. Hardy, B. J. D., Wolff, H. G., & Goodell, H. (1949). Experimental evidence on the nature of cutaneous hyperalgesia. Journal of Clincal Investigation, (9), 115–140.

  44. Hegedus, E. J., Goode, A., Campbell, S., Morin, A., Tamaddoni, M., Iii, C. T. M., & Cook, C. (2008). Physical examination tests of the shoulder : a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42, 80–92.

  45. Henrique, H., Santana, S., Adélia, I., Fernandes, V., Lima, Ê. M., Ribeiro, A., & Peixoto, A. (2015). Neurorehabilitation Neurodynamic Mobilization and Peripheral Nerve Regeneration : A Narrative Review. International Journal of Neurorehabilitation, 2(2), 163.

  46. Hickling, J., & Maitland, G. D. (1970). Abnormalities in passive movement: diagrammatic representation. Physiotherapy, 56(3), 105–114.

  47. Hutting, N., Verhagen, A. P., Vijverman, V., Keesenberg, M. D. M., Dixon, G., & Scholten-Peeters, G. G. M. (2013). Diagnostic accuracy of premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency tests: A systematic review. Manual Therapy, 18(3), 177–182.

  48. Inamasu, J., & Guiot, B. H. (2005). Iatrogenic vertebral artery injury. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 112(6), 349–57.

  49. Jansen, M. J., Viechtbauer, W., Lenssen, A. F., Hendriks, E. J. M., & de Bie Rob A., R. a. (2011). Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy, 57(1), 11–20.

  50. Jia, B. X., Ji, J. H., Petersen, S. A., Freehill, M. T., & Mcfarland, E. G. (2009). An Analysis of Shoulder Laxity in Patients undergoing Shoulder Surgery. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 91A, 2144–2150.

  51. Kaale, B. R., Krakenes, J., Albrektsen, G., & Wester, K. (2008). Clinical assessment techniques for detecting ligament and membrane injuries in the upper cervical spine region—A comparison with MRI results. Manual Therapy, 13(5), 397–403.

  52. Kerry, R., & Taylor, A. J. (2006). Cervical arterial dysfunction assessment and manual therapy. Manual Therapy, 11, 243–253.

  53. Kerry, R., Taylor, A. J., Mitchell, J., & McCarthy, C. (2008). Cervical arterial dysfunction and manual therapy: A critical literature review to inform professional practice. Manual Therapy, 13(4), 278–288.

  54. Kim, S., Park, J., Jeong, W., & Shin, S. (2005). The Kim Test A Novel Test for Posteroinferior Labral Lesion of the Shoulder — A Comparison to the Jerk Test. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33, 1188–1192.

  55. Kim, S., Park, J., Park, J., & Oh, I. (2004). Painful Jerk Test A Predictor of Success in Nonoperative Treatment of Posteroinferior Instability of the Shoulder. The American Journal of Spor, 32, 1849–1855.

  56. Kohn, V., Reichert, B., & Windisch, G. (2014). Validität und Reliabilität klinischer Stabilitätstests bei hochzervikalen Instabilitäten. Manuelle Medizin, 52(3), 221–228.

  57. Kuczynski, J. J., Schwieterman, B., Columber, K., Knupp, D., Shaub, L., & Cook, C. E. (2012). Effectiveness of physical therapist administered spinal manipulation for the treatment of low back pain: a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(6), 647–62.

  58. Lalkhen, A. G., & McCluskey, A. (2008). Clinical tests: sensitivity and specificity. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain, 8(6), 221–223.

  59. Lederman, E. (2010). The fall of the postural-structural-biomechanical model in manual and physical therapies: Exemplified by lower back pain. CPDO Online Journal, (March), 1–14.

  60. Lederman, E. (2011). The fall of the postural-structural-biomechanical model in manual and physical therapies: Exemplified by lower back pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 15(2), 131–138.

  61. Lederman, E. (2015). A process approach in manual and physical therapies : beyond the structural model. CPDO Online Journal, (May), 1–18.

  62. Lewis, J. S. (2011). Subacromial impingement syndrome : a musculoskeletal condition or a clinical illusion ? Physical Therapy Reviews, 16, 388–398.

  63. Longo, U. G., Rizzello, G., Loppini, M., Locher, J., Buchmann, S., Maffulli, N., & Denaro, V. (2015). Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review. Arthroscopy : The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, (published online first 2015), 1–13.

  64. MacDermid, J. C., Chesworth, B. M., Patterson, S., & Roth, J. H. (1999). Validity of pain and motion indicators recorded on a movement diagram of shoulder lateral rotation. The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 45(4), 269–277.

  65. Malanga, G. a., Andrus, S., Nadler, S. F., & McLean, J. (2003). Physical examination of the knee: A review of the original test description and scientific validity of common orthopedic tests. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(4), 592–603.

  66. Mather, R. C., Garrett, W. E., Cole, B. J., Hussey, K., Bolognesi, M. P., Lassiter, T., & Orlando, L. A. (2015). Cost-effectiveness Analysis of the Diagnosis of Meniscus Tears. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(1), 128–137.

  67. Mathews, J. A. (1969). Atlanto - Axial Subluxation in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 28, 260–266.

  68. Mcfarland, E. G., Garzon-muvdi, J., Jia, X., Desai, P., & Petersen, S. A. (2010). Clinical and diagnostic tests for shoulder disorders : a critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 328–332.

  69. Miley, M. L., Wellik, K. E., Wingerchuk, D. M., & Demaerschalk, B. M. (2008). Does cervical manipulative therapy cause vertebral artery dissection and stroke? The Neurologist, 14(1), 66–73.

  70. Mintken, P. E., Metrick, L., & Flynn, T. (2008). Upper Cervical Ligament Testing in a Patient With Os Odontoideum Presenting With Headaches. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 38(8), 465–475.

  71. Misamore, G. W., Sallay, P. I., & Didelot, W. (2005). A longitudinal study of patients with multidirectional instability of the shoulder with seven- to ten-year follow-up. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 14, 466–470.

  72. Mitchell, S. W. (1872). Injuries of Nerves and Their Consequences. Ph: Lippincott. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/details/injuriesof nerves00micuoft

  73. Moseley, G. L., & Vlaeyen, J. W. S. (2015). Beyond nociception : the imprecision hypothesis of chronic pain. Pain, 156(1).

  74. Nijs, J., Houdenhove, B. Van, & Oostendorp, R. A. B. (2010). Recognition of central sensitization in patients with musculoskeletal pain : Application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice. Manual Therapy, 15(2), 135–141.

  75. Osmotherly, P. G., Rivett, D. A., & Rowe, L. J. (2012). The anterior shear and distraction tests for craniocervical instability. An evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging. Manual Therapy, 17(5), 416–421.

  76. Pettman E. (1994). Stress tests of the craniovertebral joints. In B. and Palastanga (Ed.), Grieve’s Modern Manual Therapy: The Vertebral Column. (pp. 529–537). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.

  77. Petty, N. J., Maher, C., Latimer, J., & Lee, M. (2002). Manual examination of accessory movements--seeking R1. Manual Therapy, 7(1), 39–43.

  78. Pinto, D., Robertson, M. C., Abbott, J. H., Hansen, P., & Campbell, A. (2013). Manual therapy, exercise therapy, or both, in addition to usual care, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: A randomized controlled trial. 2: economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 21, 1504–1513.

  79. Provencher, M. T., Leclere, L. E., King, S., Mcdonald, L. S., Frank, R. M., Mologne, T. S., … Romeo, A. A. (2011). Posterior Instability of the Shoulder Diagnosis and Management. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 874–886.

  80. Roerdink, M., Lamoth, C. J. C., Kwakkel, G., Wieringen, P. C. W. Van, & Beek, P. (2013). Diagnostic Accuracy of Upper Cervical Spine Instability Tests: A Systematic Review. Physical Therapy, 93(12), 1686.

  81. Rushton, A., Rivett, D., Carlesso, L., Flynn, T., Hing, W., & Kerry, R. (2012). International Framework for Examination of the Cervical Region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction prior to Orthopaedic Manual Therapy Intervention.

  82. Saccomanno, M. F., Fodale, M., & Cazzato, G. (2013). Joints Generalized joint laxity and multidirectional instability of the shoulder. Joints, 1, 171–179.

  83. Saltychev, M., Äärimaa, V., Virolainen, P., & Laimi, K. (2016). Conservative treatment or surgery for shoulder impingement : systematic review and meta- analysis Conservative treatment or surgery for shoulder impingement : systematic review and meta-analysis, 8288(January).

  84. Sandkuhler, J. (2009). Models and Mechanisms of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia. Physiological Reviews, (89), 707–758.

  85. Shacklock, M. (1995). Neurodynamics. Physiotherpay, 81(1), 9.

  86. Shacklock, M. (2005). Improving application of neurodynamic (neural tension) testing and treatments : A message to researchers and clinicians. Manual Therapy, 10, 175–179. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2005.03.001

  87. Shacklock, M. (2009). Response to Butler and Coppieters 2007 , Letter to the Editor : Clinical neurodynamics e Throwing the baby out with the bath water. Manual Therapy, 14(1), e1–e2.

  88. Shum, G. L., Tsung, B. Y., & Lee, R. Y. (2013). The immediate effect of posteroanterior mobilization on reducing back pain and the stiffness of the lumbar spine. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(4), 673–679.

  89. Siddiqui, M. A., Ahmad, I., Sabir, A. Bin, Ullah, E., Rizvi, S. A. A., & Rizvi, S. W. A. (2013). Clinical examination vs. MRI: Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy in detecting ACL and meniscal injuries in comparison to arthroscopy. Polish Orthopedics & Traumatology, 78, 59–63.

  90. Slater, H., Briggs, A. M., Fary, R. E., & Chan, M. (2013). Upper cervical instability associated with rheumatoid arthritis: What to “know” and what to “do.” Manual Therapy, 18(6), 615–619.

  91. Smart, K., & Doody, C. (2007). The clinical reasoning of pain by experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapists. Manual Therapy, 12(1), 40–49.

  92. Smith, B. E., Thacker, D., Crewesmith, A., & Hall, M. (2015). Special tests for assessing meniscal tears within the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Medicine, 20(3), 88–97.

  93. Snyder, S., Karzel, R., Getelman, M., Burns, J., Bahk, M., Auerback, D., & Mirisch, M. (2015). Laxity Versus Instability. In Shoulder Arthroscopy (3rd ed., pp. 119–126).

  94. Stamos-Papastamos, N., Petty, N. J., & Williams, J. M. (2011). Changes in Bending Stiffness and Lumbar Spine Range of Movement Following Lumbar Mobilization and Manipulation. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 34(1), 46–53.

  95. Swinkels, R., Beeton, K., & Alltree, J. (1996). Pathogenesis of Upper Cervical Instability. Manual Therapy.

  96. Tahmoush, A. J. (1981). Causalgia: redefinition as a clinical pain syndrome. Pain, 10(10), 187–197.

  97. Taylor, A. J., & Kerry, R. (2010). A “system based” approach to risk assessment of the cervical spine prior to manual therapy. International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine, 13(3), 85–93.

  98. Topp, K. S., & Boyd, B. S. (2006). Structure and biomechanics of peripheral nerves: nerve responses to physical stresses and implications for physical therapist practice. Physical Therapy, 86(1), 92–109. Retrieved from

  99. Tzannes, A., & Murrell, G. A. C. (2002). Clinical Examination of the Unstable Shoulder. Sports Medicine, 32(7), 447–457.

  100. van den Dolder, P. a, & Roberts, D. L. (2006). Six sessions of manual therapy increase knee flexion and improve activity in people with anterior knee pain: a randomised controlled trial. The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 52(4), 261–264.

  101. Vanti, C., Bon, R., Calabrese, M., Marinelli, F., Guccione, A., Saverio, F., & Pillastrini, P. (2011). Upper limb neurodynamic test 1 and symptoms reproduction in carpal tunnel syndrome . A validity study q. Manual Therapy, 16, 258–263.

  102. Walch, G. (1996). Chronic Anterior Glenohumeral Instability. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Edition, 2(78B), 670–677.

  103. Walters, A. (1959). The differentiation of causalgia and hyperpathia. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 80, 105–109.

  104. Wand, B. M., Heine, P. J., & O’Connell, N. E. (2012). Should we abandon cervical spine manipulation for mechanical neck pain? : yes. Bmj, 344(June), 7–10.

  105. Wang, M. C., Chan, L., Maiman, D. J., Kreuter, W., & Deyo, R. A. (2007). Complications and mortality associated with cervical spine surgery for degenerative disease in the United States. Spine, 32(3), 342–347.

  106. Warby, S. A., Pizzari, T., Ford, J. J., Hahne, A. J., & Watson, L. (2015). Exercise-based management versus surgery for multidirectional instability of the glenohumeral joint : a systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, (Published online Dec 2015), 1–10.

  107. Widjaja, A., Tran, A., Bailey, M., & Proper, S. (2006). Correlation between Bankart and Hill-Sachs Lesions in Anterior Shoulder Dislocation. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 76, 436–438.

  108. Willems, J., & Willems, W. (2012). Chronic Shoulder Instability. In Evidence-Based Orthopedics (pp. 744–751). Oxford: BMJ Books.

  109. Woolf, C. (1983). Evidence for a central component of post-injury pain hypersensitivity. Nature, 306(15 Dec), 686–688.

  110. Woolf, C. J. (2011). Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain, 152(SUPPL.3), S2–S15.

  111. Woolf, C. J. (2014). What to call the amplification of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system that contribute to widespread pain ? Pain, 155(10), 1911–1912.

  112. Zumstein, M., Jost, B., & Gerber, C. (2005). Instability of the Shoulder in Athletes. Sportmedizin and Sporttraumatologie, 53, 27–35.

  113. Zusman, M. (2009). Pain science and mobilisation of painful compressive neuropathies. Physical Therapy Reviews, 14(4), 285–289.